KALASHA - KHOWAR - NURISTANI WORD LIST

This is a comparative list of 205 words in English, Kalasha, Khowar, Nuristani, Hindi-Urdu and Pashtu.

Kalasha is spoken by the so-called "Black Kafirs" who live in the valleys of Bumboret, Birir and Rumbur in Chitral, Northwest Pakistan.

There are only 3,000 people left who still practice the Kalash religion. However, there are about 3,000 others who have converted from Kalash to Islam but who have reverted to speaking Kalasha. Thus, there are a total of 6,000 speakers of Kalasha. Traditionally, when a person changed his religion from Kalash to Islam, he stopped speaking Kalasha and started speaking Khowar.
The Kalash say that they came from a place called Tsyam, but nobody knows where that place is or was.

Those who have reverted to speaking Kalasha live primarily in Urtsun and Jinjoret Valleys south of Drosh and in the Village of Kalkatak in Chitral.

Nuristani is spoken by the former so-called "Red Kafirs" who live primarily in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. There are 100,000 speakers of Nuristani. There are three varieties of Nuristani: Kativiri, Kamviri and Mumviri. It is not clear whether these three are dialects or are independent languages, but they are related. Kativiri is used in my word list below.

The Nuristanis are an old tribe who, it is believed, were encountered by Alexander the Great when he came through the area in 327 BC. Some claim that the Nuristanis are actual descendants of the soldiers of Alexander of Macedonia. This claim is almost certainly not true, as it seems clear that the Nuristanis were already there when Alexander arrived, and that his historians wrote about them.

There is a popular movie entitled "The Man Who Would Be King" staring Sean Connery which is based upon the legend that the Nuristanis came from Alexander the Great.

The Nuristanis themselves claim that they are the original Qureish, the tribe of Muhammad, the Prophet. When the people of Mecca converted to Islam, there were a few who kept the old religion and were therefore driven out of Mecca. They migrated to Afghanistan and became the Nuristanis, or so the Nuristanis say. However, nobody other then the Nuristanis themselves seem to believe this story to be true.

Nuristan was conquered by King Abdul Rehman of Afghanistan in 1893, who forcibly converted the Nuristanis to Islam. Previously, their land was known as Kafirstan and their language as Kafirstani.

Kalasha is classified as being closely related to Khowar but, as this word list demonstrates, they are far apart and only distantly related. Nuristani is even more distantly related. These three languages are all classified as "Dardic" languages.

Included herein are also my Hindi-Urdu and Pashtu word lists. The purpose for inclusion is simply to demonstrate that Kalasha, Khowar and Nuristani are not related to Urdu or Pashtu.

Credit is due to Kendall Decker of the Summer Institute of Linguistics for providing data, although I doubt that Mr. Decker wants to take the credit (and blame) for my method of transcription.

- Ismail Sloan

EnglishKalashaKhowarNuristaniHindi-UrduPashtu
bodyCheqalipjithjismbadan
headshishkapalshesarsar
hairchawarphurzhubalwextu
facerumoxnaskorchehramax
eyeechghechacheakhstarga
earkakarkorekkanghwag
nosenastneskarnasonakpoza
mouthashiapakashimuhzolu
toothdandorikdonduthekdatghax
toungejiphliginiditszabanjiba
breastchuchupapchukchatisina
bellykuchshkamakutalpetxeta
arm/handbazabazugotarbazulas
elbowharkinkurkunaptikohnisangal
palmpephandushparhathelitale
fingeraguchamutayuungligota
fingernailnanguzhekdughurnachinaxunnukh
legkhurdekzapotanxpaq
skinpostphostchumjidlsarman
boneathikolatihadiaduke
hearthiahardiziridilzaru
bloodluileiluixunwina
urinemutramirutsuiopeshabmutiaze
fecesrichrichgiipuxanadake-mutiaze
villagegromdehgromgaukale
housedurduramugharkor
roofdramiistankrumchatchath
doordurdowahtdudarwazawar
firewoodshuladardalakrilargi
broomshashkonimazhiniskajharujaru
mortardipaandorarulangrilangarei
pestlemusomusulwohathichetu
hammerbalkachotabudilhatherasatak
knifechakuchakuchakuchaquchaku
axebadokbardoxwuzakulharatabar
roperajukshimeniminarasipare
threadsutrsuturpchichedhagatar
needlesuzhikshunjchimchichsuistan
clothchelegarzappizisnakaprakapra
ringangushtyerpulungushtuangishtianguthigota
sunsuriyorsusurajnwar
moonmastrukmasmoschandspogmai
skydiasmanasmaasmanasman
startariistarirushtositarastore
rainpiliweboshikagolbarisbaran
waterukhughopaniubu
riverpatisholisinnaodaryasind
cloudminjikotnarubadalwaryaz
lightingindochikbilpakdashpulselabijiliprakigi
rainbowindrudronhanuindroquzahtal
windsiragandimihawahawa
stonebathbohtwatpatharkane
pathponponputhrastalar
sandshigoshughurtsuyuretshaga
fireangarangarangoagour
smokethumkushundyumdhualuge
ashshutikpheruasirakhira
mudtuktoqshurkicharxata
dustkhaturgihthparasmitigard
goldsuesorumsunsonazar
treemuthkankanudaraxtwana
leafpuchanpurpatapana
rootiznosiwaklujharjarare
thornchukzuxtaikataazghe
flowergamburigamburipishphulgwal
fruitmewamewamiwaphalmewa
mangoamamamamam
bananakelakelakilakelakela
wheatghumgomgumgehughanam
milletaingrasrobajrawarbashi
ricegrinzhgrinjmochawalwrije
potatoalualualukalualu
eggplantkhaliapatiganbanjonbaenantor-batingar
groundnutbum-palimum-phalimom-phalimun-phalimumpali
chilimachmahchmurchmirchmarchake
turmericzechawazehchawazarchawahaldikurkaman
garlicweshnuwrezhnuwezhnulehsanuga
onionkachenduktrashtucheknukpiazpiaz
cauliflowergobigobigulpigobigobi
tomatopatingelpatingelpatingaltamatarsur-batingar
oiltelteltilteltel
saltlutrupzhukhnamakmalga
meatmosphushurbetegoshtghwaxa
fatmeghapskecherbiwazda
fishmatsimatsiomatsamachlikab
chickenkakawakkahakkokmurghicharga
eggayukunayukunpudukandahu
cowgakhleshugogaeghwa
buffalogameshgameshmashigobhesmexa
milkchhirchhirzududhpe
hornsshinsurungshinsingxkar
taildamerirumdemeedumlake
goatpaipaiwashibakribiza
dogshuarenikuikutaspe
snakegokhaibibimstasaapmar
monkeymekamukulmakabandarbizo
mosquitotrakmangashkagunutarakmacharmashe
antpililakpililiramikhchiutimege
spiderupalakshubinakparkemukmakrijola
namenomnamnomnamnum
manmuchmoshmanshiadmisare
womanistizhakimerijukururatxaza
childsudatsiqpirmibachamashum
fatherdadatattobapplar
motherayanannumamor
brotherbayabrarbrobhairor
sisterbabaispisarsusbahenxor
sonputrzhaopitrbetazwe
daughterchuzhurjukhbetilur
husbandberumoshmachshoharxawand
wifejabokshtiribivixaza
boypurushguekdaqmidilarkahalak
girlshtrizhaguekkumorujukhlarkijine
daybasanusgijurdinwraz
nightratchhuiradurratshpa
morningaduachhuchhipuchkulsubahsahar
noonhulukunagranishgrishdopahergharma
afternoonchakdiwioshamshomshammaxam
yesterdaydoshdoshduskalparun
todayojahanunshirakgijurajnan
tomorrowchopopengachuidalkeainda-kalsaba
weeksat-bashaftaagarhaftahafta
monthmastrukmasmosmihanamiasht
yearkaosalsisalkal
oldshumberanparanusyumapuranazor
newnoanoghnuineanawe
goodprushtjamlastaachaxu
badshumshumdigarxarabxarab
wetgrilazahzhelibhigalund
dryshushtaChuChhudrishtxushkwach
longdrigadrungdargalambaugud
shortbetsakiskurdimotichotalund
hottapalapechpechgaramtod
coldoshushakyuzthandayax
rightdrachhoskidachindaexe
leftkawrikholikabaegas
nearshoiunashoitevireqaribnizde
fardeshaduderibadyurdurlare
biggadaLotalrbaraghat
smallchutyaktsiqparmichotawarkote
heavyangurakaqaigamwobharidrund
lightlotslotslukahalkaspak
abovetarasoraulauparuchat
belownunamulavirinichelande
whitegoirakshpirukashirsufedspin
blackkrizhnashazhikalator
redlachiakruizalalsur
oneekiewekyao
twodujuduidodwa
threetretroiteretindre
fourchaoChorshtewocharsalor
fivepoinpochpuchpachpinza
sixshoChhoishucheshpag
sevensatsotsuthsatuwe
eightashtushtushthathatu
ninenoniununaonaha
tendashjushdutsdaslas
elevendashyegasushiyanitsgyarayaolas
twelvedashyeduajohjuditsbaradolas
twentybishibishirvatsibisshal
one-hundredshorshorputsieksosal
whokurakakatsikunsok
whatkiakiaghkaikyasu
wherekawakurakorkidharcharta
whenkayokiawahtkoikabkala
how-manykimonkandurichukkitnesomra
whichkurekiwaligajistakensakam
thisiahayaeniyeda
thatsehesikiwoagha
theseemihamitamniyeda
thoseelihetamkiwoagha
samebarubarbarabarerngestekhiyaoshan
wholetazapurapuramukamalrogh
brokenchhinaChhirdupatingustitutamat
fewchutyakkamechokthoralag
manybobobalukziadader
allsaosaftsaksabtol
eatzhukzhibikyutumkhaoxoral
biteashatooyoiatushiokatnachichal
hungryanoraChuyiiobhukhlagna
drinkpipikpipinaskal
thirstydantrushopilagnakedal
sleepdudioreikprushsonaudakedal
laydrekdaporikchiletnasamlastal
sitnasnishiknisbaethnakenastal
givepradikpredenawarkawal
burnupweikpaleiklushjalanatalargi
dieanashibrikmisimarnamrakedal
killnashmareikjaimarnawajal
flyupululikundrurnaalwatal
walk!kasikosikestichalnapaidalarsha
runadyaedeikachudurnamandawahal
goparbiketujanatalal
comeagikhatsianaratlal
speakamaludikwilabolnawayal
heardsangakarasingasunaawredal
seepashiposhikwaadekhnakatal
Iaawautsmaezu
youtututwitumtu
you-(formal)tututwiaptaso
he/sheasahesikivohagha
weabispaimuhammunga
you-(plural)abipisashotumtaso
theyelihetamkivohaghwi

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